~Dr Pinky Moni Nath, Dr D.R.Nath, Dr Kuleswan Pame, Dr D Choudhury and Dr A J Nath
Total contribution of goat milk is around 2 % of the total milk production in world. Goat milk has some advantages over cow milk consumption. Because of its low yield as compare to bovine species goat milk has limitations in its availability. Goat milk is an excellent alternative to cow milk. Goat milk production is of significant importance to the economy and survival of large populations of country. It has beneficial effects for health maintenance, physiological functions, in the nutrition of children and elderly people, Goat milk is also of great importance to infants and patients who suffer from cow milk allergy. The smaller fat globules in goat milk result in a smaller and softer curd, enabling digestive enzymes to break it down more rapidly. Goat milk also has higher levels of short- and medium-chain fatty acids, rendering a faster and easier digestion process as well as producing quicker energy. Goat milk is better option for lactose intolerant people as goat milk contains less amount of lactose compared to cattle milk. According to United States Department of Agriculture value added products are defined as:-
1) A change in the physical state or form of the products and production of a product in a manner that enhances its value as demonstrated through business plan.
2) The physical segregation of commodity or product in a manner that result in the enhancement of the value of that commodity or product.
Purpose of value addition
- Value addition plays a critical role in the social-economic advancement of the society.
- To promote entrepreneur ventures and employment.
- To preserve, transport and distribute to larger populations.
- To incorporate non-meat and milk ingredients for quality and economy.
- To utilize different by products.
- To increase demand and marketability and meet life style requirements.
- Healthy milk and meat products.
- To provide variety of milk and meat products.
Value added goat milk products
- Goat cheese – Hundreds of cheese varieties are produced, ranging from soft cheeses (mozzarella, ricotta, etc.) to hard cheeses (cheddar, colby, Swiss, etc.). The general procedures of cheese manufacturing are: 1) standardizing the milk, 2) setting the temperature, 3) adding starter cultures, 4) adding rennet, 5) cutting curds, 6) cooking, 7) draining whey, 8) salting, 9) hooping, 10) pressing, 11) packaging, and 12) aging. Soft cheeses are made by natural draining without pressing.
- Goat milk ice cream- Goat milk produced the most acceptable ice cream followed by cow milk. It has a softer texture and specific melting characteristics.
- Butter – goat milk have greater percentages of fat, so these animals can be used if small quantities of butter are to be produced.
- Whey goat milk flavored beverage, tablets (chew able), whey protein concentrate, and athletic supplements – These products are prepared from Goat milk whey which is generally discarded. Goat milk whey has higher levels of α-lactalbumin.
- Yogurt, Buttermilk and Sour Cream – Yogurt is becoming more popular as people become aware of the health benefits of two probiotics in yogurt that aid digestion, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Goat yogurt is softer and less viscous and often lacks the typical flavor of cow yogurt.Buttermilk is usually made from skim milk (less than 0.5 percent fat) using the by-product from churning butter out of sour cream. Yogurt is made from whole milk (3.25 percent fat), low-fat milk (0.5 percent to 2.5 percent fat), or skim milk. Sour cream must contain 18 percent fat in most states. Acidophilus milk can be made by the activity of L. acidophilus, which is capable of converting a greater proportion of the lactose to lactic acid (2 percent).
- Kefir – Kefir is an acidic, slightly foamy product made from pasteurized and fat-standardized or decreamed (partially skimmed) goat milk that has passed through a combined acidic and alcoholic fermentation of symbiotic lactic acid bacteria and yeast kefir grains. The finished product, kefir, contains 0.6 percent to 0.8 percent lactic acid and 0.5 percent to 1.0 percent alcohol.
- Evaporated and Powdered Product – Evaporated and powdered goat milk are manufactured and marketed in the United States. Evaporation is usually carried out under reduced pressure, primarily to allow boiling at a lower temperature to prevent heat damage. Powdered products available include whole milk, skim milk, whey, and infant-foods formulae.
- Other Products – Ghee is an Indian clarified butterfat product manufactured by fermenting whole milk into curd and churning out the butter, followed by heat clarification at 105-145°C. Additional goat milk products made in India include chhana, khoa, and paneer, a cheese. Chhana is an acid- and heat-coagulated milk product, and a chhana-based sweet is made by kneading chhana and cooking it in sugar syrup over medium heat. Khoa is a heat-desiccated indigenous milk product used for various sweets. Cosmetic products such as goat milk soap and hand lotion are produced and marketed in large quantities in many countries including the United States.
Processing of meat into more palatable form increases its demand in return it enhances meat value. Value addition of meat and meat products make them more nutritious & healthier. Processing meat to value added meat products contribute to sustained meat supply and having a profit return from the value addition. Most of the value added products have been made keeping the nutritional value and healthy diet in concern, like low-fat and low cholesterol considering its cost, which can be minimized by addition of non-meat ingredient or vegetable source such as soy-protein, cereals, milk protein etc. There are various ingredients which are use for value addition of meat products liken addition of α-tocopherol which increases the oxidative stability of goat meat patties, addition of oat trim or oat bran decreased fat and shear force. Processing methods also enhances value addition of meat products like smoked and fermented goat meat sausages are more acceptable to consumers.
Value Addition of meat can be done by
- By adopting modern meat processing techniques.
- Utilization of non-chemical based substances as replacers of chemical based meat additives.
- Addition of non-meat ingredients with functional properties – Binders, Extenders etc
- Addition of non meat products to increase the nutritional value of meat products – eg. use of mushroom flours in sausages.
Value Added meat Products
- Emulsion based meat products – Tough meat is minced in a mincer and emulsion is prepared in bowl chopper then fat, salts, spices, additives, ice flakes etc are added in correct proportion. Then emulsion is prepared. Different products are prepared according to the need. Eg. Sausages, meat nuggets, meat loaf, Patties, Kebab, Meat ball etc.
- Restructured meat products – Low quality meat cuts and trimmings from whole carcass are being utilize for production of restructured meat products.
- Intermediate moisture meat processing – IMM are considered as dry meat with respect to its bacterial spoilage resistance. Its moisture content is in the range of 20% to 30%.
- Enrobed meat products – Coating of meat products with edible materials in the form of batter using flour, whole egg liquid and other additives. Enrobing produces crispy texture of the product hence increases the palatability.
- Communited meat products – Communition is a process of subdividing of raw meat into a meat pieces of uniform size. Degree of communition gives variety of products. Eg. Meat burgers, meat patties etc.
Non meat ingredients used in meat-
- Meat Binders/ Extenders ¬ Binders are mostly non-meat proteins used for proper binding of the meat ingredients for better emulsion stability. Eg.-Soy Protein Concentrate , Isolated soy protein, non fat dried milk (NFDM), yeast protein etc.
- Fillers in meat products – are use in meat products to reduce the cost of formulations. Eg.- Bread crumbs , Corn flour, flour of rice, pea, corn and starch of potato. etc.
- Emulsifiers or stabilizers- are used in low fat products for better texture and juiciness. Eg.- Gums.
Value added meat and milk products are the future of the Indian meat and dairy industry. This sector can become one of the most revenue generating sectors of food processing industry. But taking a look at the present scenario of the infrastructure of this industry in North East it seems that value added products have to go a long way to become popular.
Authors- Dr Pinky Moni Nath, Dr D.R.Nath, Dr Kuleswan Pame, Dr D Choudhury and Dr A J Nath, Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Joyhing, North Lakhimpur
(This article has been re-published with due consent of the author, from a handbook on “Bigyansanmata Sagoli Palon” (Scientific Goat Rearing) published by Lakhimpur College of Veterinary Science, on the occasion of a two days training programme held on 16th and 17th March, 2019 in commemoration with the Golden Jubilee Year of Assam Agricultural University.- Editor, Pashu Samriddhi).